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Parasites in reindeer in Fennoscandia – a review

Josefsen TD, Oksanen A, Gjerde B. Parasitter hos rein i Fennoskandia – en oversikt. [Parasites in reindeer in Fennoscandia – a review]. Norsk veterinærtidsskrift 2014; 126(2): 183-199 (In Norwegian with English summary).

Parasites of reindeer in Fennoscandia (Norway, Sweden and Finland) are reviewed. Skin: Sucking lice Solenopotes tarandi, biting lice Bovicola tarandi, and Chorioptes-mites are rare or absent. Deer ked Lipoptena cervi is occasionally found in Finland. Gastrointestinal tract: The rumen fluke Paramphistomum leydeni and the cestode Moniezia sp. are widespread. Gastrointestinal nematodes are ubiquitous: Ostertagia gruehneri in abomasum, Nematodirus tarandi, Nematodirella longissimespiculata and Capillaria sp. in the small intestine, and Trichuris ovis and Skrjabinema tarandi in the large intestine. Eimeria spp. are common. Giardia occurs, while Cryptosporidium screenings are negative. Liver: The small lanceolate fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum occurs sporadically. The cysticerc of Taenia hydatigena occurs sporadically. Respiratory system: The sinus worm Linguatula arctica is widespread and common. The lungworm Dictyocaulus eckerti is pathogenic, but occurs not frequently. Hydatide cysts of Echinococcus granulosus are virtually nonexistent in Norway and Sweden, but occur sporadically in Finland. Muscles: Sarcocystis spp. are ubiquitous, while the cysticerc of Taenia krabbei is rare. Connective tissue/fasciae: Setaria tundra has caused large outbreaks of peritonitis in reindeer. Onchocerca tarsicolaoccurs in reindeer in Finland and Sweden. Besnoitia is rare, and occurs only in Finland. Vascular system and blood: Babesia is absent from reindeer areas. Trypanosomes are common, but apathogenic. Lappnema auris and Rumenfilaria andersoniare rare, and seen only in Finland. Different tissues: Toxoplasma occurs at low prevalence. Neospora and Hammondia prevalence is unknown. Omitted: The oestrid flies Hypoderma tarandi and Cephenemyia trompe, and the brain worm Elaphostrongylus rangiferi are reviewed in separate papers in this issue.

NVI authors

Josefsen Terje Domaas

Veterinary pathologist (permisjon)